Protected areas finance>
Home - Overview - To Do - Info

photo by P Brophy

This page provides background information on financing protected areas:

Core Documents

Financing Protected Areas: Guidelines for Protected Area Managers (2000) - A practical guide to assist protected area managers in identifying and securing appropriate and sustainable finance. Develops a step-by-step process which protected area managers can use to create business and financial plans tailored to the needs and strengths of their protected area.

Raising revenues for protected areas (2001) - Paper describes more than 25 different ways of raising revenues for protected areas. Summarizes their relative advantages and disadvantages and lists sources for obtaining further information.

A review of innovative international financial mechanisms for biodiversity conservation: With a special focus on the international financing of developing countries' protected areas
This report was released in October 2007 and focuses on international funding for protected areas with the aim to influence discussion at the May 2008 9th meeting of the Conference of the Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity. It provides a good overview of the current situation and challenges ahead.
Pablo Gutman and Sarah Davidson, 2007)

Sustainable financing of protected areas: A global review of challenges and options (2006) - Lays out the complex issues of financing protected areas as well as helping managers find solutions from the experience gained in many protected areas across the world.


Introduction to biodiversity finance (2001) - an introduction to the IUCN programme on biodiversity finance

Protected areas: New realities for sustainable finance (2001) - for a preparatory workshop for the last World Parks Congress

> Protected areas finance (April 2006) - presentation for the 2006 session of this course

Sustainable financing for protected areas in Madagascar (2005) - from a recent workshop of the Conservation Finance Alliance

Websites - The Conservation Finance Alliance (CFA) was created to catalyze increased and sustainable public and private financing for biodiversity conservation to support the effective implementation of global commitments to conservation. - Managed by IUCN in association with WWF. Intended to encourage and assist the use of economics in support of biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. -  Seeks to become the world's leading source of information on markets and payment schemes for ecosystem services; services such as water quality, carbon sequestration and biodiversity. - A guide designed to help companies operating in emerging markets better understand their relationship to biodiversity issues and how they can effectively manage those issues to improve business performance and benefit from biodiversity.

More documents

This section provides a selection of documents which may also be of interest:

Debt swaps for sustainable development: A practical guide for NGOs
There is thus a world of difference between academic writing and `field' practice. This handbook tries to bridge this gap by demystifying debt conversion or debt swaps, using a series of concrete examples and providing practical advice on how to do it.
(by Jürgen Kaiser and Alain Lambert, 1996)

A global review of protected area budgets and staff
Describes the first attempt to systematically review national expenditure on protected areas, and to assess staffing levels. As such it is a major
contribution to assessing the cost of biodiversity conservation.
(by Alexander N. James, Michael J.B. Green and James R. Paine, 1999)

From goodwill to payments for environmental services
An article from newsletter of WWF–MPO’s Economic Change, Poverty, and the Environment Program.
(by Pablo Gutman)

Generating income in your backyard: A worthy approach to financing biodiversity
While local revenue generation cannot be expected to always raise the
millions required to set up vast protection programs, it can at times provide the operations money for changing a paper park into a real operational protected area.
(by Antoine Leclerc, 1996)

The green buck: using economic tools to deliver conservation goals, a WWF field guide
Provides an introduction for the non-specialist to some of the approaches that economics can offer. Sections include financing conservation, creating markets that support conservation, and influencing policies and plans.
(by Tom Le Quesne and Richard McNally, 2005)

Investing in environmental wealth for poverty reduction
Examines the economic case for investing in the environment, as a contribution to poverty reduction. Argues that the environment is not a luxury good, which poor countries can do without, but an essential part of strategies to reduce poverty and foster sustainable growth.
(by David Pearce, 2005)

Sponsorship experiences of selected protected areas in the Alpine region
"This paper introduces the idea of funding parks by sponsorships in a three step process: it describes the need for private sector contributions to conservation funding, defines the theoretical background of sponsorships and current market trends and analyses the present state of sponsorships in selected Alpine protected areas."
(by Barbara Müller, 2008)

Tourism for protected area financing: Understanding tourism revenues for effective management plans
"Protected areas also need to gain skills to build links and partnerships with the commercial tourism sector, to help manage and raise revenues from tourism, consistent with site conservation priorities. To do this they need to understand the economics of tourism, and the report presents a simple model to assist with this."
(by Xont, J Cochrane, and R Tapper, 2004)

Towards financial sustainability for protected areas: Learning from a business approach
Written to help the local and regional managers of conservation agencies - primarily managers of Protected Areas and Integrated Conservation and Development Projects (ICDPs) - to learn lessons from each other.
(by Amar Inamdar and Emmanuel de Merode, 1999)